Research on the Double Dual Origin of
Modern Man and pre-Modern Man
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Prepared by Halbert Katzen, J.D.
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Warning: If you landed on this UBtheNEWS page first and/or are generally unfamiliar with this website and The Urantia Book, this page presents one of the most intriguing aspects of the UBtheNEWS project. However, this is not a good place to get started, unless you are already familiar with both The Urantia Book and the way genetics research is used to trace the mutations and migrations of humanity’s early genetic history.
The Home page gives a very brief overview of the UBtheNEWS project; it’s designed for new visitors. The New Visitors page provides options for getting started that are tailored to your interests and how much time you want to spend.
There is an important difference between UBtheNEWS “Research” pages and “Report” pages. Reports walk the reader, step by step, through an appreciation for how new discoveries and scientific advances increasingly support The Urantia Book’s credibility. Reports presume people are generally unfamiliar with The Urantia Book and the field of study that pertains to the corroboration. Research pages, in contrast, presume a general understanding of both. Research pages are designed to help you be efficient in your independent study of a topic.
This is the first Research page created by the UBtheNEWS project. It reflects the fact that new support for The Urantia Book’s credibility outpaces our ability to write reports about it and that this trend is expected to continue. It also demonstrates how a whole new field of study—genetics research—is aligning with an extended discussion in The Urantia Book, as compared to new discoveries that support just a sentence or small section of the book. The Adam and Eve Report is the way to get started if you want to begin exploring this topic on UBtheNEWS.
Learning about The Urantia Book’s unique quality of credibility through the lens of how particular discoveries and scientific advances increasingly support its history has its own value, of course. But there are also drawbacks to this approach. In particular, it tends to exacerbate the problem of reading statements out of context from The Urantia Book that are about eugenics, genetics, and race. It also makes it harder to appreciate certain theological and cosmological teachings. So on January 1, 2011 UBtheNEWS published Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book to address the broader issues and assist people in understanding the book on its own terms. This is the first and only comprehensive review of how these issues are addressed in The Urantia Book.
That being said . . .
Determining when primitive man and modern man made their first appearance on earth is one of the greatest challenges anthropologists face. Naturally, people want to know “what science says” about when and how we got here. What is the origin of Homo sapiens sapiens? Why do we have sapiens as both a species and subspecies designation? And how does this relate to being a “modern man?”
In the search for the origin of primitive and modern man, we now have a powerful new tool to help with the interpretation of archaeological and anthropological discoveries—genetics research. This field of science is teaching us things about our past that we could never learn from archaeological discoveries. But our quest is not just a scientific question.
This topic plunges us directly into social issues with strong crosscurrents. These issues range from racial to religious, from speculations about extraterrestrial genetics to biases in support of theories that pass the “politically correct” test. Both racial bigotry and “politically correct” ideologies directly interfere with scientific research. Adding to all this, we have The Urantia Book’s explanation of the history of human genetics, which includes theological, cosmological, racial, and political commentary.
Due to the complexities of this topic, preliminary reading is “required”—specifically, the Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book paper (Appendix 1: Urantia Book-based Taxonomy, in particular, can serve as a useful extension to the study of this presentation of comparisons.) and the Adam and Eve Report. Familiarity with the former is important for its coverage of eugenics and race within a context that emphasizes the moral foundation on which teachings from The Urantia Book rest. The latter not only walks the reader through impressive parallels to The Urantia Book coming out of genetics research, but also reveals how contemporary culture squelches research when it raises issues that make people uncomfortable and leads to conclusions that are not “politically correct.”
This page only presents the tip of the iceberg, of course, because it is designed to assist you in your own deeper study of this topic. You will find brief descriptions of the key concepts from The Urantia Book and summaries of the findings from related genetics research, archaeological discoveries, and other anthropological advances. The links will guide you to the various facets of this fascinating intersection between new discoveries and The Urantia Book’s detailed description of when major genetic changes occurred in human history.
Not surprisingly, genetics research provides powerful support for what is said in The Urantia Book because, when it was published, this field of science was in its embryonic stage of development. It is important to bear in mind that in 1955 scientists had not yet determined the number of human chromosomes, let alone explored our genetic structure. (See the Chromosome Count Report.) The Urantia Book was published before researchers could specifically date archaeological sites and artifacts; radiometric dating techniques were just being invented. There was nothing around back then to provide us with the type of specific information we get from genetics research about when and how ancient populations mixed and migrated. Nonetheless, the authors of The Urantia Book speak about these aspects of our ancient history, explaining that human history is marked by four major genetic changes and specifying the location of these changes:
Asia is the homeland of the human race. It was on a southern peninsula of this continent that Andon and Fonta were born [approximately 1,000,000 years ago, the first human beings]; in the highlands of what is now Afghanistan, their descendant[s] . . . founded a primitive center of culture that persisted for over one-half million years. Here at this eastern focus of the human race the Sangik peoples [approximately 500,000 years ago, “Sangik” refers to a mutation that created the colored races] differentiated from the Andonic stock, and Asia was their first home, their first hunting ground, their first battlefield. Southwestern Asia witnessed the successive civilizations of . . . Nodites [originating approximately 200,000 years ago], Adamites [originating approximately 40,000 years ago], and Andites, and from these regions the potentials of modern civilization spread to the world.(1)
The Andonic race and the Sangik races originated as evolutionary mutations. In contrast, the Nodites and the Adamites involve the introduction of non human genetics, intended to be compatible with and an upliftment to human genetics. The timing of these latter two changes corresponds to the two time periods that genetics researchers and anthropologists focus on with respect to the origin of modern man. These events also correspond directly, of course, to Old Testament writings in Genesis. According to The Urantia Book, the introduction of superhuman genetics into the human population created Homo sapiens sapiens.
The Urantia Book explains that the celestial administration of our planet, when they arrived 500,000 years ago with the dawn of the colored race, had a staff of one hundred men and women of immortal status. This staff are said to have come (in a spirit form) from another world to this one, where they were given a human form that had a mixed genetic foundation—human and “superhuman.” But they did not breed prior to the rebellion. They did not procreate during the first 300,000 years of celestial administration loyal service. But later, those who joined the rebellion became mortal and mated, thus introducing new genetics into our gene pool 200,000 years ago. The authors of The Urantia Book describe the situation this way:
The one hundred were material but superhuman beings, having been reconstituted on Urantia as unique men and women of a high and special order.(2)
The presence of these extraordinary supermen and superwomen, stranded by rebellion and presently mating with the sons and daughters of earth, easily gave origin to those traditional stories of the gods coming down to mate with mortals. And thus originated the thousand and one legends of a mythical nature, but founded on the facts of the postrebellion days, which later found a place in the folk tales and traditions of the various peoples whose ancestors had participated in these contacts with the Nodites and their descendants.(3)
[W]hen the sixty rebels of the staff, the followers of Nod, actually engaged in sexual reproduction, their children proved to be far superior in almost every way . . . This unexpected excellence characterized not only physical and intellectual qualities but also spiritual capacities.
These mutant traits appearing in the first Nodite generation resulted from certain changes which had been wrought in the configuration and in the chemical constituents of the inheritance factors of the . . . germ plasm. . . . The technique of this germ plasm metamorphosis . . . is not unlike those procedures whereby Urantia scientists modify the germ plasm of plants and animals by the use of X rays.(4)
The postrebellion era on Urantia witnessed many unusual happenings. . . . “The Nephilim (Nodites) were on earth in those days, and when these sons of the gods went in to the daughters of men and they bore to them, their children were the `mighty men of old,’ the `men of renown.'” While hardly “sons of the gods,” the staff and their early descendants were so regarded by the evolutionary mortals of those distant days; even their stature came to be magnified by tradition. This, then, is the origin of the well-nigh universal folk tale of the gods who came down to earth and there with the daughters of men begot an ancient race of heroes. And all this legend became further confused with the race mixtures of the later appearing Adamites in the second garden.(5)
Notwithstanding the default of our Adam and Eve and the consequent, premature termination of their mission, the authors emphasize that they made a significant contribution to human genetics. Examples of these statements include: “[T]he Adamic blood did augment the inherent ability of the races and did accelerate the pace of economic development and industrial progression. Adam's bestowal improved the brain power of the races, thereby greatly hastening the processes of natural evolution.” “The result of the gift of the Adamic life plasm to the mortal races is an immediate upstepping of intellectual capacity and an acceleration of spiritual progress.” “You would be far more disease resistant if your races carried more of the Adamic life.”
Additionally, regarding the spread of civilization resulting from the mixture of Nodites and Adamites, the authors say:
The second Eden was the cradle of civilization for almost thirty thousand years. Here in Mesopotamia the Adamic peoples held forth, sending out their progeny to the ends of the earth, and latterly, as amalgamated with the Nodite and Sangik tribes, were known as the Andites. From this region went those men and women who initiated the doings of historic times, and who have so enormously accelerated cultural progress on Urantia.(6)
The violet race — Adamites and Adamsonites. [Adamson is the first son of Adam] The chief center of Adamite culture was in the second garden, located in the triangle of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; this was indeed the cradle of Occidental and Indian civilizations. The secondary or northern center of the violet race was the Adamsonite headquarters, situated east of the southern shore of the Caspian Sea near the Kopet mountains. From these two centers there went forth to the surrounding lands the culture and life plasm which so immediately quickened all the races.(7)
For about thirty-five thousand years after the days of Adam, the cradle of civilization was in southwestern Asia, extending from the Nile valley eastward and slightly to the north across northern Arabia, through Mesopotamia, and on into Turkestan. And climate was the decisive factor in the establishment of civilization in that area.(8)
Decades after its publication, genetics research powerfully parallels The Urantia Book’s detailed description of this major genetic uplift that occurred approximately 40,000 years ago and the mixing of these new genetics with the rest of humanity.
The development of genetics research, when correlated with the existing anthropological and archaeological evidence, initially led scholars to think that modern man—Homo sapiens sapiens—first developed around 40,000 years ago. However, research on mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome, along with certain anthropological and archaeological evidence, supports pushing this date back to approximately 200,000 years ago. Interestingly enough, the authors of The Urantia Book offered an explanation for this difficulty in marking the origins of modern man before these two time periods were identified as the dates on which to focus. And more importantly, knowing what these dates are helps us to see how researchers relate to and try to interpret their data.
1) Urantia Book 79:0.1
2) Urantia Book 66:4.8
3) Urantia Book 67:4.3
4) Urantia Book 77:2.4,5
5) Urantia Book 77:2.3
6) Urantia Book 78:0.1
7) Urantia Book 78:1.3
8) Urantia Book 81:1.1
Descriptions of links for further study of the four major genetic changes.
40,000 years ago: Adam and Eve
Urantia Book related links:
In the Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book paper, the latter two thirds of Chapter 5: History and Destiny provides a general overview of the four major changes in human genetics discussed in The Urantia Book. Also see Appendix 1: A Urantia Book-based Taxonomy for a perspective on how human genetics according to The Urantia Book can be adapted to taxonomical classifications.
The Urantia Book says that a “superhuman” genetic uplift occurred approximately 40,000 years ago and that it gave rise to religious traditions about Adam and Eve. The Adam and Eve Report reviews how this correlates with research on the Microcephalin gene and Y chromosome genes. It also reviews why research was discontinued in response to political pressures.
To learn more fully what The Urantia Book says about Adam and Eve, their descendants, and the Andite migrations read all of the following Papers. Noteworthy excerpts include:
Paper 74: Adam and Eve, from “The Legend of Creation” section:
The majority of the world's peoples have been influenced by the tradition that Adam and Eve had physical forms created for them upon their arrival on Urantia. The belief in man's having been created from clay was well-nigh universal in the Eastern Hemisphere; this tradition can be traced from the Philippine Islands around the world to Africa. And many groups accepted this story of man's clay origin by some form of special creation in the place of the earlier beliefs in progressive creation -- evolution.
Away from the influences of Dalamatia and Eden, mankind tended toward the belief in the gradual ascent of the human race. The fact of evolution is not a modern discovery; the ancients understood the slow and evolutionary character of human progress. . . .
The Babylonians, because of immediate contact with the remnants of the civilization of the Adamites, enlarged and embellished the story of man's creation; they taught that he had descended directly from the gods. They held to an aristocratic origin for the race which was incompatible with even the doctrine of creation out of clay.
The Old Testament account of creation dates from long after the time of Moses; he never taught the Hebrews such a distorted story. But he did present a simple and condensed narrative of creation to the Israelites, hoping thereby to augment his appeal to worship the Creator, the Universal Father, whom he called the Lord God of Israel.
In his early teachings, Moses very wisely did not attempt to go back of Adam's time, and since Moses was the supreme teacher of the Hebrews, the stories of Adam became intimately associated with those of creation. That the earlier traditions recognized pre-Adamic civilization is clearly shown by the fact that later editors, intending to eradicate all reference to human affairs before Adam's time, neglected to remove the telltale reference to Cain's emigration to the "land of Nod," where he took himself a wife.
. . .
Jewish tradition became crystallized about Moses, and because he endeavored to trace the lineage of Abraham back to Adam, the Jews assumed that Adam was the first of all mankind. Yahweh was the creator, and since Adam was supposed to be the first man, he must have made the world just prior to making Adam. . . .
The Christian teachers perpetuated the belief in the fiat creation of the human race, and all this led directly to the formation of the hypothesis of a onetime golden age of utopian bliss and the theory of the fall of man or superman which accounted for the nonutopian condition of society. These outlooks on life and man's place in the universe were at best discouraging since they were predicated upon a belief in retrogression rather than progression, as well as implying a vengeful Deity, who had vented wrath upon the human race in retribution for the errors of certain onetime planetary administrators.
The "golden age" is a myth, but Eden was a fact, and the Garden civilization was actually overthrown. Adam and Eve carried on in the Garden for one hundred and seventeen years when, through the impatience of Eve and the errors of judgment of Adam, they presumed to turn aside from the ordained way, speedily bringing disaster upon themselves and ruinous retardation upon the developmental progression of all Urantia.
(Urantia Book 74:8.4-8,10,13,14)
Paper 78: The Violet Race After the Days of Adam, which includes the following:
5. THE ANDITE MIGRATIONS
For twenty thousand years the culture of the second garden persisted, but it experienced a steady decline until about 15,000 B.C., when the regeneration of the Sethite priesthood and the leadership of Amosad inaugurated a brilliant era. The massive waves of civilization which later spread over Eurasia immediately followed the great renaissance of the Garden consequent upon the extensive union of the Adamites with the surrounding mixed Nodites to form the Andites.
These Andites inaugurated new advances throughout Eurasia and North Africa. From Mesopotamia through Sinkiang the Andite culture was dominant, and the steady migration toward Europe was continuously offset by new arrivals from Mesopotamia. But it is hardly correct to speak of the Andites as a race in Mesopotamia proper until near the beginning of the terminal migrations of the mixed descendants of Adam. By this time even the races in the second garden had become so blended that they could no longer be considered Adamites.
The civilization of Turkestan was constantly being revived and refreshed by the newcomers from Mesopotamia, especially by the later Andite cavalrymen. The so-called Aryan mother tongue was in process of formation in the highlands of Turkestan; it was a blend of the Andonic dialect of that region with the language of the Adamsonites and later Andites. Many modern languages are derived from this early speech of these central Asian tribes who conquered Europe, India, and the upper stretches of the Mesopotamian plains. This ancient language gave the Occidental tongues all of that similarity which is called Aryan.
By 12,000 B.C. three quarters of the Andite stock of the world was resident in northern and eastern Europe, and when the later and final exodus from Mesopotamia took place, sixty-five per cent of these last waves of emigration entered Europe.
The Andites not only migrated to Europe but to northern China and India, while many groups penetrated to the ends of the earth as missionaries, teachers, and traders. They contributed considerably to the northern groups of the Saharan Sangik peoples. But only a few teachers and traders ever penetrated farther south in Africa than the headwaters of the Nile. Later on, mixed Andites and Egyptians followed down both the east and west coasts of Africa well below the equator, but they did not reach Madagascar.
These Andites were the so-called Dravidian and later Aryan conquerors of India; and their presence in central Asia greatly upstepped the ancestors of the Turanians. Many of this race journeyed to China by way of both Sinkiang and Tibet and added desirable qualities to the later Chinese stocks. From time to time small groups made their way into Japan, Formosa, the East Indies, and southern China, though very few entered southern China by the coastal route.
(Urantia Book 78:5.1-6)
Paper 79: Andite Expansion in the Orient, which begins:
ASIA is the homeland of the human race. It was on a southern peninsula of this continent that Andon and Fonta were born; in the highlands of what is now Afghanistan, their descendant Badonan founded a primitive center of culture that persisted for over one-half million years. Here at this eastern focus of the human race the Sangik peoples differentiated from the Andonic stock, and Asia was their first home, their first hunting ground, their first battlefield. Southwestern Asia witnessed the successive civilizations of Dalamatians, Nodites, Adamites, and Andites, and from these regions the potentials of modern civilization spread to the world.
1. THE ANDITES OF TURKESTAN
For over twenty-five thousand years, on down to nearly 2000 B.C., the heart of Eurasia was predominantly, though diminishingly, Andite. In the lowlands of Turkestan the Andites made the westward turning around the inland lakes into Europe, while from the highlands of this region they infiltrated eastward. Eastern Turkestan (Sinkiang) and, to a lesser extent, Tibet were the ancient gateways through which these peoples of Mesopotamia penetrated the mountains to the northern lands of the yellow men. The Andite infiltration of India proceeded from the Turkestan highlands into the Punjab and from the Iranian grazing lands through Baluchistan. These earlier migrations were in no sense conquests; they were, rather, the continual drifting of the Andite tribes into western India and China.
For almost fifteen thousand years centers of mixed Andite culture persisted in the basin of the Tarim River in Sinkiang and to the south in the highland regions of Tibet, where the Andites and Andonites had extensively mingled. The Tarim valley was the easternmost outpost of the true Andite culture. Here they built their settlements and entered into trade relations with the progressive Chinese to the east and with the Andonites to the north. In those days the Tarim region was a fertile land; the rainfall was plentiful. To the east the Gobi was an open grassland where the herders were gradually turning to agriculture. This civilization perished when the rain winds shifted to the southeast, but in its day it rivaled Mesopotamia itself.
By 8000 B.C. the slowly increasing aridity of the highland regions of central Asia began to drive the Andites to the river bottoms and the seashores. This increasing drought not only drove them to the valleys of the Nile, Euphrates, Indus, and Yellow rivers, but it produced a new development in Andite civilization. A new class of men, the traders, began to appear in large numbers.
Paper 80: Andite Expansion in the Occident, which begins:
ALTHOUGH the European blue man did not of himself achieve a great cultural civilization, he did supply the biologic foundation which, when its Adamized strains were blended with the later Andite invaders, produced one of the most potent stocks for the attainment of aggressive civilization ever to appear on Urantia since the times of the violet race and their Andite successors.
The modern white peoples incorporate the surviving strains of the Adamic stock which became admixed with the Sangik races, some red and yellow but more especially the blue. There is a considerable percentage of the original Andonite stock in all the white races and still more of the early Nodite strains.
1. THE ADAMITES ENTER EUROPE
Before the last Andites were driven out of the Euphrates valley, many of their brethren had entered Europe as adventurers, teachers, traders, and warriors. During the earlier days of the violet race the Mediterranean trough was protected by the Gibraltar isthmus and the Sicilian land bridge. Some of man's very early maritime commerce was established on these inland lakes, where blue men from the north and the Saharans from the south met Nodites and Adamites from the east.
In the eastern trough of the Mediterranean the Nodites had established one of their most extensive cultures and from these centers had penetrated somewhat into southern Europe but more especially into northern Africa. The broad-headed Nodite-Andonite Syrians very early introduced pottery and agriculture in connection with their settlements on the slowly rising Nile delta. They also imported sheep, goats, cattle, and other domesticated animals and brought in greatly improved methods of metalworking, Syria then being the center of that industry.
For more than thirty thousand years Egypt received a steady stream of Mesopotamians, who brought along their art and culture to enrich that of the Nile valley. But the ingress of large numbers of the Sahara peoples greatly deteriorated the early civilization along the Nile so that Egypt reached its lowest cultural level some fifteen thousand years ago.
But during earlier times there was little to hinder the westward migration of the Adamites. The Sahara was an open grazing land overspread by herders and agriculturists. These Saharans never engaged in manufacture, nor were they city builders. They were an indigo-black group which carried extensive strains of the extinct green and orange races. But they received a very limited amount of the violet inheritance before the upthrust of land and the shifting water-laden winds dispersed the remnants of this prosperous and peaceful civilization.
Adam's blood has been shared with most of the human races, but some secured more than others. The mixed races of India and the darker peoples of Africa were not attractive to the Adamites. They would have mixed freely with the red man had he not been far removed in the Americas, and they were kindly disposed toward the yellow man, but he was likewise difficult of access in faraway Asia. Therefore, when actuated by either adventure or altruism, or when driven out of the Euphrates valley, they very naturally chose union with the blue races of Europe.
Genetics Research links:
Y Chromosome Haplogroups
The following haplogroup classifications come from studies on the Y chromosome. Clicking on the “Haplogroup” will take you to the Wikipedia pages from which the following excerpts are taken:
In human genetics, haplogroup F is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup spanning all the continents. This haplogroup and its subclades contain more than 90% of the world's existing male population. This supercluster contains mainly lineages that are not typically found in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that its ancestral C-F chromosome may have been carried out of Africa very early in the modern human diaspora, and F may have appeared 48,000 (38,700-55,700) years ago, probably in Eurasia.
According to the phylogeographic distribution of haplotypes observed among South Asian populations defined by social and linguistic criteria, the possibility arose of haplogroup F might have originated in or near India . . .
It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion and rise to prevalence appears to have been in South Asia or somewhere close to it within the extended Middle East. All of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H, F and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).
Several lineages derived from Haplogroup F appear to have migrated into Africa from a homeland in Southwest Asia sometime during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, R1b, and T.
In human genetics, Haplogroup G is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F. Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, Caucasus, South Asia, western and central Asia, and northern Africa.
Various estimated dates and locations have been proposed for the origin of Haplogroup G. The National Geographic Society places haplogroup G origins in the Middle East 30,000 years ago and presumes that people carrying the haplogroup took part in the spread of the Neolithic. Two scholarly papers have also suggested an origin in the Middle East, while differing on the date. Semino et al. (2000) suggested 17,000 years ago. Cinnioglu et al. (2004) suggested the mutation took place only 9,500 years ago.
The majority of all the male skeletons from the European Neolithic period that have so far yielded Y-DNA belong to haplogtoup G2a. There are only a few samples from this period because of the difficulty extracting nuclear DNA. The oldest skeletons confirmed by ancient DNA testing as carrying haplogroup G2a were five found in the Avellaner cave burial site for farmers in northeastern Spain and were dated by radiocarbon dating to about 7000 years ago.
Compare Haplogroup G with the following from The Urantia Book (78:6.1-4):
6. THE LAST ANDITE DISPERSIONS
The last three waves of Andites poured out of Mesopotamia between 8000 and 6000 B.C. These three great waves of culture were forced out of Mesopotamia by the pressure of the hill tribes to the east and the harassment of the plainsmen of the west. The inhabitants of the Euphrates valley and adjacent territory went forth in their final exodus in several directions:
Sixty-five per cent entered Europe by the Caspian Sea route to conquer and amalgamate with the newly appearing white races -- the blend of the blue men and the earlier Andites.
Ten per cent, including a large group of the Sethite priests, moved eastward through the Elamite highlands to the Iranian plateau and Turkestan. Many of their descendants were later driven into India with their Aryan brethren from the regions to the north.
Ten per cent of the Mesopotamians turned eastward in their northern trek, entering Sinkiang, where they blended with the Andite-yellow inhabitants. The majority of the able offspring of this racial union later entered China and contributed much to the immediate improvement of the northern division of the yellow race.
In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup IJK which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J. Haplogroup IJ derived populations account for a significant fraction of the present-day populations of Europe, Western Eurasia, North Africa, the Americas, and Australia
It is notable that no example of a Haplogroup IJ Y-chromosome has been found among any modern human population; the existence of the Haplogroup IJ node has been inferred from the fact that certain mutations are shared in common among all Y-chromosomes belonging to the descendant haplogroups I and J. The lack of any examples of Haplogroup IJ belonging to neither Haplogroup I nor Haplogroup J complicates any attempt to deduce the geographical location where Haplogroup IJ first appeared; however, the fact that both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J are found among modern populations of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Southwest Asia tends to support the hypothesis that Haplogroup IJ derived from Haplogroup IJK in the vicinity of West Asia or the Middle East and subsequently spread throughout Western Eurasia.
In human genetics, Haplogroup I (the letter I, not the number 1) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK. Y-DNA Haplogroup I is predominantly a European haplogroup today. It represents nearly one-fifth of the population of Europe. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations. Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes have also been found among some populations of the Near East, the Caucasus, Northeast Africa and Central Siberia.
The TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) for the I clade was estimated by Karafet and colleagues in 2008 as 22.2 k.a. (22,200 years ago) with a confidence interval between 15.3-30.0 ka., placing the Haplogroup I founding event approximately contemporaneous with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) which lasted from 26.5 ka to 19 or 20 ka.
. . . Rootsi and colleagues in 2004 suggested that each of the ancestral populations now dominated by a particular subclade of Haplogroup I experienced an independent population expansion immediately after the last glacial maximum.
In human genetics, Haplogroup J . . . is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men. It is divided into two main branches referred to as J1 and J2.
Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen roughly 30,000 years ago in Southwest Asia . . . It is most closely related to Haplogroup I, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J have mutations in common deriving from Haplogroup IJ. . . . The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now comprise between them almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.
In human genetics, Haplogroup K is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. This haplogroup is a descendant of Haplogroup IJK. Its major descendant haplogroups are Haplogroup LT and Haplogroup K(xLT). Paragroup K (haplogroups K, K1, K2, K3 and K4) are found in Oceania, and Australia and only at low frequency in South Asia and the Malay Archipelago.
Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage established approximately 40,000-50,000 years ago whose origins were probably in Southwestern Asia or South Asia. At present this group contains two distinct classes of subgroups: (1) major groups L to T (refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree) and (2) minor groups K and K1 to K4, which do not have any of the SNPs defining the major groups. These groups are found at low frequencies in various parts of Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Haplogroup L is associated with South Asia. It has also been found at low frequencies among populations of Central Asia, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup K, and is believed to have first appeared approximately 30,000 years ago.
In human genetics, Haplogroup NO is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup NO is a descendant branch of the greater Haplogroup MNOPS (also known as K(xLT)) and a phylogenetic sibling of Haplogroup M, Haplogroup P, and Haplogroup S.
The M214 mutation that defines Haplogroup NO occurred in a gamete of a man who belonged to Haplogroup MNOPS and who probably lived somewhere in Eurasia east of the Aral Sea about 30,000 to 40,000 years ago. This man has become the direct patrilineal ancestor of a very large percentage of present-day humans, as he is the forefather of both Haplogroup N and Haplogroup O, which together are overwhelmingly dominant in most populations of North and East Eurasia.
In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-MRCA) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all living people are descended patrilineally (tracing back only along the paternal lines of their family tree). Many studies report that Y-chromosomal Adam lived as early as around 142,000 years ago and possibly as recently as 60,000 years ago. All living humans are also descended matrilineally from Mitochondrial Eve who is thought to have lived earlier about 190,000 - 200,000 years ago. Y-chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve need not have lived at the same time.
Science Daily: March 14, 2012
The fossils are of a people with a highly unusual mix of archaic and modern anatomical features and are the youngest of their kind ever found in mainland East Asia. Dated to just 14,500 to 11,500 years old, these people would have shared the landscape with modern-looking people at a time when China's earliest farming cultures were beginning, says an international team of scientists.
200,000 years ago: the Nodite race
Urantia Book related links:
In the Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book paper, the latter two thirds of Chapter 5: History and Destiny provides a general overview of the four major changes in human genetics discussed in The Urantia Book. The first two were progessive mutations. This third one involves the introduction of superhuman genetics. Also see Appendix 1: A Urantia Book-based Taxonomy for a perspective on how human genetics according to The Urantia Book can be adapted to taxonomical classifications.
The Urantia Book says that a “superhuman” genetic uplift occurred approximately 200,000 years ago and that it gave rise to religious traditions about Lucifer, Satan, and the Devil. To learn more fully what The Urantia Book says regarding this aspect of our cosmological history and the impact it had on human genetics read the following Papers:
Paper 53: The Lucifer Rebellion, which includes the following:
Before the bestowal of Michael these rulers of darkness sought to maintain their authority on Urantia, and they persistently withstood the minor and subordinate celestial personalities. But since the day of Pentecost this traitorous Caligastia and his equally contemptible associate, Daligastia, are servile before the divine majesty of the Paradise Thought Adjusters and the protective Spirit of Truth, the spirit of Michael, which has been poured out upon all flesh.
But even so, no fallen spirit ever did have the power to invade the minds or to harass the souls of the children of God. Neither Satan nor Caligastia could ever touch or approach the faith sons of God; faith is an effective armor against sin and iniquity. It is true: "He who is born of God keeps himself, and the wicked one touches him not."
In general, when weak and dissolute mortals are supposed to be under the influence of devils and demons, they are merely being dominated by their own inherent and debased tendencies, being led away by their own natural propensities. The devil has been given a great deal of credit for evil which does not belong to him. Caligastia has been comparatively impotent since the cross of Christ.
(Urantia Book 53:8.7-9)
Michael, upon assuming the supreme sovereignty of Nebadon, petitioned the Ancients of Days for authority to intern all personalities concerned in the Lucifer rebellion pending the rulings of the superuniverse tribunals in the case of Gabriel vs. Lucifer, placed on the records of the Uversa supreme court almost two hundred thousand years ago, as you reckon time. Concerning the system capital group, the Ancients of Days granted the Michael petition with but a single exception: Satan was allowed to make periodic visits to the apostate princes on the fallen worlds until another Son of God should be accepted by such apostate worlds, or until such time as the courts of Uversa should begin the adjudication of the case of Gabriel vs. Lucifer.
Satan could come to Urantia because you had no Son of standing in residence -- neither Planetary Prince nor Material Son. Machiventa Melchizedek has since been proclaimed vicegerent Planetary Prince of Urantia, and the opening of the case of Gabriel vs. Lucifer has signalized the inauguration of temporary planetary regimes on all the isolated worlds. It is true that Satan did periodically visit Caligastia and others of the fallen princes right up to the time of the presentation of these revelations, when there occurred the first hearing of Gabriel's plea for the annihilation of the archrebels. Satan is now unqualifiedly detained on the Jerusem prison worlds.
Since Michael's final bestowal no one in all Satania has desired to go to the prison worlds to minister to the interned rebels. And no more beings have been won to the deceiver's cause. For nineteen hundred years the status has been unchanged.
We do not look for a removal of the present Satania restrictions until the Ancients of Days make final disposition of the archrebels. The system circuits will not be reinstated so long as Lucifer lives. Meantime, he is wholly inactive.
(Urantia Book 53:9.3-6)
Paper 54: Problems of the Lucifer Rebellion, which includes the following as the first section:
1. TRUE AND FALSE LIBERTY
Of all the perplexing problems growing out of the Lucifer rebellion, none has occasioned more difficulty than the failure of immature evolutionary mortals to distinguish between true and false liberty.
True liberty is the quest of the ages and the reward of evolutionary progress. False liberty is the subtle deception of the error of time and the evil of space. Enduring liberty is predicated on the reality of justice -- intelligence, maturity, fraternity, and equity.
Liberty is a self-destroying technique of cosmic existence when its motivation is unintelligent, unconditioned, and uncontrolled. True liberty is progressively related to reality and is ever regardful of social equity, cosmic fairness, universe fraternity, and divine obligations.
Liberty is suicidal when divorced from material justice, intellectual fairness, social forbearance, moral duty, and spiritual values. Liberty is nonexistent apart from cosmic reality, and all personality reality is proportional to its divinity relationships.
Unbridled self-will and unregulated self-expression equal unmitigated selfishness, the acme of ungodliness. Liberty without the associated and ever-increasing conquest of self is a figment of egoistic mortal imagination. Self-motivated liberty is a conceptual illusion, a cruel deception. License masquerading in the garments of liberty is the forerunner of abject bondage.
True liberty is the associate of genuine self-respect; false liberty is the consort of self-admiration. True liberty is the fruit of self-control; false liberty, the assumption of self-assertion. Self-control leads to altruistic service; self-admiration tends towards the exploitation of others for the selfish aggrandizement of such a mistaken individual as is willing to sacrifice righteous attainment for the sake of possessing unjust power over his fellow beings.
Even wisdom is divine and safe only when it is cosmic in scope and spiritual in motivation.
There is no error greater than that species of self-deception which leads intelligent beings to crave the exercise of power over other beings for the purpose of depriving these persons of their natural liberties. The golden rule of human fairness cries out against all such fraud, unfairness, selfishness, and unrighteousness. Only true and genuine liberty is compatible with the reign of love and the ministry of mercy.
How dare the self-willed creature encroach upon the rights of his fellows in the name of personal liberty when the Supreme Rulers of the universe stand back in merciful respect for these prerogatives of will and potentials of personality! No being, in the exercise of his supposed personal liberty, has a right to deprive any other being of those privileges of existence conferred by the Creators and duly respected by all their loyal associates, subordinates, and subjects.
Evolutionary man may have to contend for his material liberties with tyrants and oppressors on a world of sin and iniquity or during the early times of a primitive evolving sphere, but not so on the morontia worlds or on the spirit spheres. War is the heritage of early evolutionary man, but on worlds of normal advancing civilization physical combat as a technique of adjusting racial misunderstandings has long since fallen into disrepute.
Paper 66: The Planetary Prince of Urantia. especially Sections 2-6, which includes the following:
The arrival of the Prince's staff created a profound impression. While it required almost a thousand years for the news to spread abroad, those tribes near the Mesopotamian headquarters were tremendously influenced by the teachings and conduct of the one hundred new sojourners on Urantia. And much of your subsequent mythology grew out of the garbled legends of these early days when these members of the Prince's staff were repersonalized on Urantia as supermen.
The serious obstacle to the good influence of such extraplanetary teachers is the tendency of mortals to regard them as gods, but aside from the technique of their appearance on earth the Caligastia one hundred -- fifty men and fifty women -- did not resort to supernatural methods nor superhuman manipulations.
But the corporeal staff were nonetheless superhuman. They began their mission on Urantia as extraordinary threefold beings:
1. They were corporeal and relatively human, for they embodied the actual life plasm of one of the human races, the Andonic life plasm of Urantia.
These one hundred members of the Prince's staff were divided equally as to sex and in accordance with their previous mortal status. Each person of this group was capable of becoming coparental to some new order of physical being, but they had been carefully instructed to resort to parenthood only under certain conditions. It is customary for the corporeal staff of a Planetary Prince to procreate their successors sometime prior to retiring from special planetary service. Usually this is at, or shortly after, the time of the arrival of the Planetary Adam and Eve.
These special beings therefore had little or no idea as to what type of material creature would be produced by their sexual union. And they never did know; before the time for such a step in the prosecution of their world work the entire regime was upset by rebellion, and those who later functioned in the parental role had been isolated from the life currents of the system.
In skin color and language these materialized members of Caligastia's staff followed the Andonic race. They partook of food as did the mortals of the realm with this difference: The re-created bodies of this group were fully satisfied by a nonflesh diet. This was one of the considerations which determined their residence in a warm region abounding in fruits and nuts. The practice of subsisting on a nonflesh diet dates from the times of the Caligastia one hundred, for this custom spread near and far to affect the eating habits of many surrounding tribes, groups of origin in the once exclusively meat-eating evolutionary races.
2. The one hundred were material but superhuman beings, having been reconstituted on Urantia as unique men and women of a high and special order.
This group, while enjoying provisional citizenship on Jerusem, were as yet unfused with their Thought Adjusters; and when they volunteered and were accepted for planetary service in liaison with the descending orders of sonship, their Adjusters were detached. But these Jerusemites were superhuman beings -- they possessed souls of ascendant growth. During the mortal life in the flesh the soul is of embryonic estate; it is born (resurrected) in the morontia life and experiences growth through the successive morontia worlds. And the souls of the Caligastia one hundred had thus expanded through the progressive experiences of the seven mansion worlds to citizenship status on Jerusem.
In conformity to their instructions the staff did not engage in sexual reproduction, but they did painstakingly study their personal constitutions, and they carefully explored every imaginable phase of intellectual (mind) and morontia (soul) liaison. And it was during the thirty-third year of their sojourn in Dalamatia, long before the wall was completed, that number two and number seven of the Danite group accidentally discovered a phenomenon attendant upon the liaison of their morontia selves (supposedly nonsexual and nonmaterial); and the result of this adventure proved to be the first of the primary midway creatures. This new being was wholly visible to the planetary staff and to their celestial associates but was not visible to the men and women of the various human tribes. Upon authority of the Planetary Prince the entire corporeal staff undertook the production of similar beings, and all were successful, following the instructions of the pioneer Danite pair. Thus did the Prince's staff eventually bring into being the original corps of 50,000 primary midwayers.
These mid-type creatures were of great service in carrying on the affairs of the world's headquarters. They were invisible to human beings, but the primitive sojourners at Dalamatia were taught about these unseen semispirits, and for ages they constituted the sum total of the spirit world to these evolving mortals.
(Urantia Book 66:4.1-11)
Paper 67: The Planetary Rebellion, which includes the following:
The sixty members of the planetary staff who went into rebellion chose Nod as their leader. They worked wholeheartedly for the rebel Prince but soon discovered that they were deprived of the sustenance of the system life circuits. They awakened to the fact that they had been degraded to the status of mortal beings. They were indeed superhuman but, at the same time, material and mortal. In an effort to increase their numbers, Daligastia ordered immediate resort to sexual reproduction, knowing full well that the original sixty and their forty-four modified Andonite associates were doomed to suffer extinction by death, sooner or later. After the fall of Dalamatia the disloyal staff migrated to the north and the east. Their descendants were long known as the Nodites, and their dwelling place as "the land of Nod."
The presence of these extraordinary supermen and superwomen, stranded by rebellion and presently mating with the sons and daughters of earth, easily gave origin to those traditional stories of the gods coming down to mate with mortals. And thus originated the thousand and one legends of a mythical nature, but founded on the facts of the postrebellion days, which later found a place in the folk tales and traditions of the various peoples whose ancestors had participated in these contacts with the Nodites and their descendants.
The staff rebels, deprived of spiritual sustenance, eventually died a natural death. And much of the subsequent idolatry of the human races grew out of the desire to perpetuate the memory of these highly honored beings of the days of Caligastia.
(Urantia Book 67:4.4)
Genetics Research links:
ScienceDaily: Aug. 17, 2010
The most robust statistical examination to date of our species' genetic links to "mitochondrial Eve"—the maternal ancestor of all living humans—confirms that she lived about 200,000 years ago. The Rice University study was based on a side-by-side comparison of 10 human genetic models that each aim to determine when Eve lived using a very different set of assumptions about the way humans migrated, expanded and spread across Earth.
In the field of human genetics, Mitochondrial Eve refers to the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of modern humans. In other words, she was the woman from whom all living humans today descend, on their mother's side, and through the mothers of those mothers and so on, back until all lines converge on one person. Because all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally passed from mother to offspring without recombination, all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in every living person is directly descended from hers by definition. Mitochondrial Eve is the female counterpart of Y-chromosomal Adam, the patrilineal most recent common ancestor, although they lived thousands of years apart. . . .
Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived around 200,000 years ago, most likely in East Africa, when Homo sapiens sapiens (anatomically modern humans) were developing as a population distinct from other human sub-species.
500,000 years ago: the Sangik (colored) races
Urantia Book related links:
The Urantia Book says that the colored races originated approximately 500,000 years ago as the result of a progressive mutation, meaning that all six of these races were generally superior to the race from which they sprang.
In the Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book paper, the latter two thirds of Chapter 5: History and Destiny provides a general overview of the four major changes in human genetics discussed in The Urantia Book. This is the second one. Chapter 11: Differences Between the Colored Races provides an extensive review of this specific mutation. Also see Appendix 1: A Urantia Book-based Taxonomy for a perspective on how human genetics according to The Urantia Book can be adapted to taxonomical classifications.
To learn more fully what The Urantia Book says about this progressive mutation read Paper 64: The Evolutionary Races of Color.
Genetics Research links:
ABC News by Kenneth Chang: March 28, 2000
Headline: A Breed Apart: DNA Tests: Humans Not Descended from Neanderthals
March 28— DNA from the bones of a Neanderthal baby who died 29,000 years ago offers further evidence that Neanderthals are cousins rather than ancestors of modern humans. . . .
The baby’s mitochondrial DNA differed from that of the other Neanderthal in 3.5 percent of the locations tested, while the divergence from humans was 7 percent. Scientists consider that to be a substantial gap. "It all points away from the Neanderthal," Goodwin says. Based on the number of differences, and the expected rate of change, Neanderthals and humans last shared a common ancestor about 500,000 years ago, the researchers say.
Uppsala University, Sweden: November 1, 2011
Headline: Shared genes with Neanderthal relatives not unusual
During human evolution our ancestors mated with Neanderthals, but also with other related hominids. In this week’s Net edition of PNAS researchers from Uppsala University are publishing findings that show that people in East Asia share genetic material with Denisova man, which received its name from the cave in Siberia where it was first found.
Because they find Denisova-related gene variants in Southeast Asia and Oceania, but not in Europe and America, the researchers judge that hybridization with Denisova man ought to have taken place about 20,000–40,000 years ago. This is long after the branch that became modern humans split off from the branch that became so-called archaic humans some 300,000-500,000 years ago.
1,000,000 years ago: the first humans
Urantia Book related links:
In the Eugenics, Race, and The Urantia Book paper, the latter two thirds of Chapter 5: History and Destiny provides a general overview of the four major changes in human genetics discussed in The Urantia Book. Also see Appendix 1: A Urantia Book-based Taxonomy for a perspective on how human genetics according to The Urantia Book can be adapted to taxonomical classifications.
The Urantia Book says that a “superhuman” genetic uplift occurred approximately 40,000 years ago and gave rise to religious traditions about Adam and Eve. Primarily, the Adam and Eve Report reviews how this correlates with research on the Microcephalin gene and Y chromosome genes. But an aspect of this study also parallels The Urantia Book’s assertion that the first human beings evolved approximately 1,000,000 years ago: “[T]he D chromosomes coalesce to its most recent common ancestor (MRCA) at 37,000 years before present, whereas the non-D chromosomes coalesce at a far older 990,000 years before present.”
Genetics Research links:
Natural History Museum March 25, 2010
The ancient human species represented by this new DNA is unidentified at present. However, its genetic information shows it shared a common ancestor with modern humans and Neanderthals about 1 million years ago.
. . .
However, Stringer says that the species Homo antecessor ('Pioneer Man'), known from sites in Spain, has an age range that closely matches the origin of the mtDNA lineage of the Denisova human, 0.8-1.2 million years ago. But, he adds that 'recent research has suggested that H. antecessor evolved from an early Asian H. erectus, in which case its origins would also be too ancient, compared with the mystery Denisova lineage.
Scientific America Janurary 20, 2010
Headline: Endangered Species: Humans Might Have Faced Extinction 1 Million Years Ago, A new approach to probe ancient regions of the genome suggests early human populations were scarce
New genetic findings suggest that early humans living about one million years ago were extremely close to extinction.
The genetic evidence suggests that the effective population—an indicator of genetic diversity—of early human species back then, including Homo erectus, H. ergaster and archaic H. sapiens, was about 18,500 individuals (it is thought that modern humans evolved from H. erectus), says Lynn Jorde, a human geneticist at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. That figure translates into a total population of 55,500 individuals, tops.
One might assume that hominin numbers were expanding at that time as fossil evidence shows that members of our Homo genus were spreading across Africa, Asia and Europe, Jorde says. But the current study by Jorde and his colleagues suggests instead that the population and, thus its genetic diversity, faced a major setback about one million years ago. The finding is detailed in the January 18 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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